THE FOUNDATION OF NATURAL SIENCE (SCIENCE OF NATURE) - by Dietmar (G.) West, April 12, 2022


Foreword

Occasionally one can read about the "foundation of natural science" (science of nature) or "the founder" of natural science (e.g. Galileo Galilei) in context with science or natural sciences. However, neither of these have existed up to now and there has not yet been any recognized interpretation of what natural science (science of nature) is.
The "official science" disagrees on what natural science is, what it refers to, what it includes and encompasses (e.g. also includes "psychology"?, "humanities"?, etc.) and what is not.

Natural science is not founded or established by discovering one or more laws attributable to physics; by doing so one justifies at most physics, but not natural science.
The foundation of natural science is done by firstly stating clearly and unequivocally what nature is, what it encompasses and secondly how it is described.


Furthermore, in this context, mathematics is often mentioned, asked or discussed where mathematics is to be classified or assigned. This is then e.g.:


Mathematics occupies a peculiar position in the system of science. It does not belong to the natural sciences because it is not an empirical scientific discipline. At the same time, however, it would be "violent" to assign them to the humanities. (Source: Interdisciplinary workshop from October 6th to 8th, 2008 at the Georg-August-University.)


Or according to WIKIPEDIA:

Mathematics is a formal science that arose from the study of geometric figures and calculating with numbers. There is no universally accepted definition of mathematics; today it is usually described as a science that uses logic to examine the properties and patterns of self-created, strong structures created by logical definitions.

Other, earlier and later opinions are similarly wrong and are far from what mathematics is and where it is to be classified!


Here, today 12 April 2022, I describe in this short version what NATURAL SCIENCE is, what it includes and ultimately how it is to be defined. In this context I also describe and determine (define) the role (purpose) of MATHEMATICS in natural science.


With this description and definition, I, Dietmar West, found (modern) science. You can leave out the "modern" because there hasn't been any foundation of natural science up to now, it's happening here for the first time. 

The justification of natural science that I did is based on the representation of the regularity that lies in the nature of objects, insofar one can speak of the foundation of natural science as a fundamental law of nature.


  Content

Introduction

What is nature?

The FOUNDATION OF NATURAL SCIENCE:
SCIENCE OF NATURE (NATURAL SCIENCE) IS THE STUDY OF THE PROPERTIES (QUALITIES, CHARACTERISTICS) OF OBJECTS!

whereby:
1. Objects have properties (qualities)
2. The properties (qualities) of an object have a degree of expression (quantity, amount)

To 1.

 Objects have properties (qualities)
         Objects have many properties
         The knowledge of nature and its division - into natural sciences

To 2.

The properties (qualities) of an object have a degree of expression (quantities, amounts)
          Examples 1,2,3,4,5
          Psychological properties (qualities)
          Mathematics

Mathematics is a part of science of nature, namely the part that indicates the degree of expression (the quantity, the amount) of a property.

The affiliation of properties (qualities) and their quantities

The affiliation of properties (qualities) and their quantities is a lawfulness of nature and thus of all objects of nature.

Reversal of the view: each quantity belongs to an object of a certain quality (properties)

Summary
Extended definition (of the foundation) of the NATURAL SCIENCE:

Natural science is the study of the properties of objects, whereby the properties of objects have a degree of expression, i.e. they occur in certain amounts (quantities).
Mathematics is used to determine the degrees of expression, which makes it part of natural science.

Correct and recommended classification of the natural sciences (sciences of nature)

Afterword to the foundation of natural science


Introduction

I see two basic ways (possibilities) of conveying the foundation (justification) of natural science. First, I start with a definition of science and then explain it, or second, I start with an introduction and then go from there to the definition of science. In this short version I now turn to the first possibility of presenting the foundation of natural science, beginning with the definition of natural science. Before I proceed to that, I would like to briefly explain the term “nature”.


What is nature?
Nature is everything that is found on earth and in space. However, it is not all primordial nature, especially since man of the Homo sapiens type appeared on earth and intervened and transformed nature. Humans of the homo sapiens type have been involved with their environment in a process - the post-biological development process of homo sapiens - since they appeared on earth around 100,000 years ago (some "experts" even speak of 150 to 200 thousand years). He has changed the environment and thus the original nature. (See: http://west-dietmar.de/41810.html). As a result of this process, transformations took place on earth that changed the original state and thus the original nature of the earth. It is very crucial to understand that man has only made transformations of nature. He did this by interfering with and altering the smallest (e.g. atoms, molecules, matter, etc.) and largest (mountains, rivers, streams, forests, meadows) objects.
Even when we speak of "artificially" produced objects, it is always only a question of transformations of what was already given. It is nature's transformation. This applies to artificial substances as well as to "artificial elements".
The original nature, as well as the nature modified by man, consists of many individual objects. Objects are not isolated, but are connected and interact with others, which also causes them to change. So there are certain connections. Man should understand this, which also means getting to know the connections (contexts) between the phenomena and what is behind them.
Natural science is the science whose task it is to record and describe objects, their changes, effects and connections and to make them understandable to people.
With this understanding of nature, its objects, its changes and effects, I now proceed to the BASIS OF NATURAL SCIENCE. I do that by putting the DEFINITION of NATURAL SCIENCE first.


The FOUNDATION OF NATURAL SCIENCE:


NATURAL SCIENCE IS THE STUDY OF THE PROPERTIES (QUALITIES, CHARACTERISTICS) OF OBJECTS!


With this definition, the foundation of natural science has been laid. This definition of science is comprehensive and sufficient if one knows or acknowledges the following:


1. Objects have properties (qualities).
2. The properties (qualities) of an object have a degree of expression (quantity, amount).


I now proceed to describe these two statements in more detail.


To 1:


Objects have properties (qualities)
Objects can be described and differentiated by their properties. If you want to describe and differentiate objects, you will soon find that they have several properties and that some objects are also similar, i.e. have similar properties.


Objects have many properties
First of all, there is the distinction according to basic properties that distinguish animate objects (living beings) from inanimate objects. One can speak of key features that distinguish the animate from the inanimate nature of objects.
Further differences in the properties of objects lead e.g. to the terms individual, species, race, sex, etc.
Certain properties of objects are referred to as liquid (e.g. water, oil, gasoline, etc.); other than solid (rocks, ores, iron, steel, wood, etc.) other than gaseous (air, carbon dioxide, methane gas, etc.).
animals make sounds; people have a language, etc.


The knowledge of nature and its division - into natural sciences
The grouping of objects according to their properties results in teachings and sciences, e.g. of living (animated) objects or those of inanimate objects. For example, ANATOMY deals with the structure of living objects (living beings), PHYSIOLOGY with the functioning of living things, i.e. living objects (living things) such as humans, animals and plants and e.g. with their cells and metabolism.
Another field of knowledge (another science) is concerned with the properties of objects that lead to compounds of matter, as well as the properties of those compounds. This science is called CHEMISTRY.
The science that deals with the properties of objects (substances, molecules, atoms) and their compounds that make up life (like cells) is called BIOCHEMISTRY.

Other sciences deal with the properties of objects that describe their condition and effects on or in connection with other objects (statics, kinematics, dynamics - sub-areas of PHYSICS).
Another science that studies the properties that describe the soil of the earth is called GEOLOGY. Another, in turn, deals with the objects that are outside the earth, i.e. in space. It's ASTRONOMY. Thus many different sciences come about to comprehend the many properties of the many objects of nature.
Human beings in particular have many characteristics that can be used to describe them. Humans have properties that can be assigned to physics, chemistry, anatomy and physiology. In addition, there are properties that result from the interaction with its environment. These are psychological characteristics that can be assigned to PSYCHOLOGY. These can be subdivided again, which I just want to point out here.


Fields of knowledge, sciences deal with objects that are described by similar properties. Since everything is only nature - more or less primal nature - that man can deal with, it is all natural science. The reader may have doubts as to whether this statement is true. But believe me, “who chews on this hard food for many thousands of years” (Goethe in Faust)! Why is that true? Because, as I said, everything is nature, only not only original, so man can only deal with nature (see the description of nature before). The difference is in the way you do it, at what level you are doing it. It is like in all areas of dealing with the environment and the knowledge of it. You can do it at a bungler's level (as the politicians do - which is why "the world has not yet come to peace and tranquillity") as well as at a master's level. No matter how they do it, they always deal with nature, just not always with the original nature.
To deal at a high level requires appropriate knowledge and skills. It's like any profession, just think of the differences: there are good and bad doctors, engineers, politicians, etc.
In order to operate at a high level one needs a correspondingly good knowledge of the properties of the objects with which one has to deal.
A good knowledge of the properties of the objects, their changes, connections, effects, etc. also includes knowing that properties have a degree of expression.
I now turn to the fact related to the properties of objects, that properties have a degree of expression (a quantity), that is, that they are in certain quantities (quantity), amounts

This is crucial to understand, because the very effects that emanate from objects or with which they come into contact or relate depend particularly on the quantity of properties. (Think, for example, of the carbon content (quantity, amount) of steel, which accounts for differences in properties from soft structural steel to the hard and/or resilient steel of knife blades.)


To 2:


The properties (qualities) of an object have a degree of expression (quantities, amounts)

Properties are present in objects in different quantities, which also means that the same properties (qualities) can differ in the quantities in which they occur.
In other words, the properties of the objects mentioned and referred to under “first” are not available in unlimited or indefinite amounts. All properties (qualities) have a degree of expression (quantity, amount), i.e. they are present in objects in a certain amount (quantity).


Example 1:

Properties of an iron-carbon alloy
For example, think of the carbon content (amount, quantity) of an iron-carbon alloy that accounts for differences in properties, from the soft structural steel to the hard and/or resilient steel of knife blades.

Example 2:

Human properties (qualities, characteristics)
Humans have certain common properties (characteristics) that distinguish them as human beings from other living beings or from other inanimate as well as animate objects. For example, humans have two legs, two arms, an upright gait, and they have a certain height (length) and weight, for example.
These properties (height and weight) have different degrees of expression (quantity, amount) in different people, in which they differ. For example, a person has a height (length) of 1.6 meters and a weight of 60 kg (actually kp as a unit of weight) and the other has a height (length) of 1.8 m and a weight of 80 kg.
In summary: Height (length) and weight are properties (qualities) and 1.6 m and 60 kg and 1.8 m and 80 kg are the associated degrees of expression, i.e. quantities or amounts of these properties.
Furthermore, people differ in their bone structure (light, medium, heavy) or in the expression of their hair color, skin color, eye color, language, etc. All these and other characteristics also have a degree of expression through which they can be more precisely determined and described.

Example 3:

Human properties
The differentiation of people through the quantity of common properties is used, for example, in identity cards or passports.

Example 4:

Properties of the atom
Atoms are basically described by the following properties. They consist of a nucleus that contains protons and neutrons and electrons that revolve around this nucleus in different orbits. These properties describe an atom in general.
Now there are different atoms and they differ in the number (amount, quantity) of the named components protons, neutrons and electrons.


Example 5:

Example to clarify quality (property) and quantity (degree of expression, amount)
You go to a butcher shop to buy 500 grams (half a kilo) of sausage. You go into the store and say "I want half a kilo of sausage". This is the amount (quantity) you want to buy. The saleswoman asks you which "variety" it should be and refers to the different properties (qualities). You then inquire, for example, about the fat content, the origin of the meat, the ingredients, the shelf life, etc. These are all properties of the sausages. From the information on these properties you get an idea of the overall quality and decide accordingly, e.g. for the quantity of 500 grams of Hungarian salami that comes closest to your ideas.

Psychological characteristics (properties)
In this context, reference should also be made to the many initially fundamental characteristics that people develop when dealing with other people, such as introverted or extraverted, with some being more or less introverted or extraverted than others. People are more or less friendly (not friendly, very friendly, cordial), or polite (more or less polite), or spontaneous (more or less spontaneous), etc. So these traits have a degree of expression. These are properties that must be assigned to the group "psychological properties". These properties are also differently pronounced in people, i.e. they are present in certain amounts (quantities).


Mathematics
This raises the question of how these degrees of expression are recorded, described or determined. This question leads to mathematics via the need to specify quantities, because it is the science that deals with quantities, quantity ratios and their changes (e.g. differential equations).
Because it is the case that the properties occur in certain quantities (degrees of expression), their quantity (quantity) is always necessary to describe the properties of the objects. This is what mathematics is for and it follows that mathematics is a part of science.
Thus:


Mathematics is a part of science, namely the part that indicates the degree of expression (the quantity, the amount) of a property.


Or in other words:
Mathematics (as the science of sets or quantities) is needed to describe the sets of properties of objects. For this you need knowledge of quantities, quantity ratios and quantity changes and that is provided by mathematics.
Quantity ratios are determined, for example, with the help of algebra – also with algebraic equations.
Mathematics is also used, for example, to describe the properties that objects have in relation to each other on the surface but also in space. For example, the distance (length) of the objects and their angles are taken into account. This assignment is only determined more precisely by the amount (the quantity) of the lengths and the angle. So the angle is a property of an arrangement of objects. The angle is determined more precisely by its quantitative specification. The science called TRIGONOMETRY deals with these properties of the arrangement of objects as a branch of mathematics.
This is no different for processes that can be described with differential equations. Here, properties (e.g. a differentiator, a linear and an integrator) are recorded that change in terms of their amount (degree of expression, quantity, quantity).
The knowledge of quantity, quantities and amounts is summarized in mathematics and is taught under this name. Mathematics is a part of natural sciences because the properties of objects also need to be specified in order to determine their properties.


The affiliation of properties (qualities) and their quantities
Properties come in specific quantities. One can go so far as to speak of an affiliation of properties (qualities) and their quantities (amounts).

The affiliation of properties (qualities) and their quantities is a lawfulness of nature and thus of all objects of nature.
In fact, it is a goal of advanced science to determine them. This then leads to the determination (definition) of "units" and the measurement of properties.
I will publish more about this in a following part on natural science. First of all, a summary of the foundation of natural science should be given here.


Reversal of the view: each quantity belongs to an object of a certain quality (properties)
In order to gain even more understanding of this state of affairs (object relationship), one can turn around the consideration of the affiliation (connection that leads to a unit) and start from a quantity and state that each quantity of an object belongs to an object of certain properties (quality). 
I hope that now the speculators in science/natural science, namely the philosophers, whether short-haired (e.g. Harald Lesch) or long-haired (e.g. Richard David Precht) have understood what belonging means here. Also, these and many others of the ruling elite should have understood what science and mathematics are and how they relate to each other.


Summary
The foundation of science rests on the fact that the objects (of nature) have properties by which they are described (and distinguished) and the properties themselves have a degree of expression which mathematics serves to describe, which is thus a part of science .


Natural science is composed of the description of properties of objects and the determination of the quantities of properties, mathematics!


Extended definition (of the foundation) of NATURAL SCIENCE:


Natural science is the study of the properties of objects, whereby the properties of objects have a degree of expression, i.e. they occur in certain amounts (quantities).
Mathematics is used to determine the degrees of expression, which makes it part of natural science.


Correct and recommended classification of the natural sciences

According to the (large) differences in the properties of the objects of inanimate and animate nature, a classification of the natural sciences that takes this fact into account is recommended. This results in a classification of the natural sciences according to the objects of inanimate and animate nature.


                      Classification of the natural sciences

Natural sciences of the inanimate objects of nature

Natural sciences of living objects of nature

Geology (Earth Sciences)

Physiology

Astronomy

Anatomy

Physics

Biology

- Biochemistry  

Chemistry

Natural sciences of life, experience and behavior

(of living beings) are sciences that deal with

the interaction  of living beings and their

 environment! This includes:


1. Life, experience and behavior of man, as a

fundamental natural science of man, including PSYCHOLOGY


2. Furthermore, all other areas that arise from human experience and behavior are to be classified and

 subordinated here, e.g. as "humanities", "social

science", if you like  "political science", and whatever

else is buzzing around in the human brain, be designated.


Afterword to the foundation of natural science
In this treatise on THE BASIS OF SCIENCE, I have clarified what "scientists" have always wanted to know, namely what science is and what it is used for (namely, to describe objects). Now scientists, including philosophers, mathematicians, etc., no longer need to speculate, theorize, philosophize, or rack their brains about what mathematics is, how it is classified, and what exactly mathematics is used for.
It will be interesting to see how the elite react to this release? Will she continue to be as ignorant as before, or will she somehow be insightful and recognize what others are doing and have done?


The founder of natural science


Dietmar West

Released: 12 April 2022

Added on 19 May 2022: Table for the "classification of the natural sciences".


I am currently creating more content for this page. In order to meet my own high quality standards, I need some more time for this. Please visit this page again soon.
Thank you for your interest!

 

 

Besucherzähler:

 

  


    01.10.2022    1.096.866
    01.09.2022    1.088.480

    01.08.2022    1.079.161

    01.07.2022     1.071.127

    01.06.2022    1.063.500

    11.04.2022    1.050.647

    01.11.2021   1.013.000

     01.09.2021   1.000.400

     30.08.2021   1.000.011 

     12.08.2021      996.473

     01.06.2921      981.150

     01.04.2021      966.900

     11.03.2021      963.279

     01.12.2020      949.274 

     01.11.2020      945.560

     01.10.2020      941.180

     01.09.2020      936.510

     01.08.2020      932.060

     01.07.2020      928.406

     01.06.2020      924.494

     01.05.2020      921.215

      01.04.2020      918.562

      01.03.2020     915.750

      01.02.2020      913.700 

      01.01.2020      911.156 

      01.01.2019      858.098

      01.10.2018      843.834